Surgical Technology International XX - Cardiovascular Surgery
Article title:

Update on Technologies for Cardiac Valvular Replacement, Transcatheter Innovations, and Reconstructive Surgery

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W. R. Eric Jamieson, MD, FRCS (C), FACS, FACC
Professor of Surgery and Senior Associate in Cardiac Surgery
University of British Columbia
Vancouver, Canada


Since the 2006 Surgical Technology International monograph on valvular prostheses, there have been significant developmental and investigative advances, particularly for transcatheter implantation. Aortic bioprostheses and mechanical prostheses continue to incorporate design changes to optimize hemodynamics and prevent prosthesis-patient mismatch and to have a potential satisfactory influence on survival. There have been continual technological improvements striving to bring forward advances that improve the durability of bioprostheses and reduce the thrombogenicity of mechanical prostheses. There also has been a continuance to preserve biological tissue with glutaraldehyde, rather than clinically evaluate other cross-linking technologies, by controlling or retarding calcification with therapies to control phospholipids and residual aldehydes. The techniques of mitral valve reconstruction have now been well established, and annuloplasty rings have been designed for the potential of maintaining the anatomical and physiological characteristics of the mitral annulus. There has been limited advancement in the past four years for interventional annuloplasty, for remodeling of the length and shape of the dilated annulus, prevention of dilatation of the annulus, and support for the potentially fragile area after partial-leaflet resection. Currently, there continues to be emergence of catheter-based therapies, particularly for management of aortic stenosis but not mitral regurgitation. For management of selected populations with critical aortic stenosis, the techniques for aortic valve substitution have had further advancement for retrograde catheter techniques, as well as apical transventricular implantation. There has not been significant advancement during the past four years to address mitral regurgitation by experimental transcoronary sinus, stent-like devices and transventricular, edge-to-edge leaflet devices. The devices, descriptions, and pictorial images comprising this monograph have been limited to technologies that are considered to be predominant, at least for the immediate duration. The general purpose of the monograph is to serve as an educational document.



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