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SURGICAL TECHNOLOGY INTERNATIONAL XIV.

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$175.00

 

STI XIV contains 40 articles with color illustrations.

 

Universal Medical Press, Inc.

San Francisco, 2005, ISBN: 1-890131-10-5

 

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Surgical Overview

 

Future of Operating Rooms
Michel MPJ Reijnen, M.D., Ph.D.;Clark J Zeebregts; M.D., Ph.D., Wilhelmus JHJ Meijerink, M.D., Ph.D.

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Operating-room design has not changed significantly since the modern era of surgery began. Minimal invasive, endoscopic, procedures, and evolution of technology will affect operating-room design in the near future. Poor ergonomics has always been one of the major drawbacks of endoscopic surgery. Use of retractable arms and monitors will improve ergonomics of the operating team. Developments in telecommunication will allow surgeons to communicate with colleagues and experts during the procedure in virtually any location around the world, which increases teaching possibilities and procedural safety. Introduction and further development of intraoperative imaging, including real-time, three-dimensional (3-D) reconstructions of patient, and computer-aided surgery offer surgeons the opportunity to train the planned surgical procedure. Moreover, they will improve control and supervision of the procedure in learning situations. The last decade's robotics have made their introduction into the operating rooms. They improve control over the operating-room environment and will facilitate the performance of more complex procedures. However, high costs and lack of force feedback remain its major drawbacks. Improvements of robotic techniques and its implementation into the operating rooms will further guide their design into highly specialized operating units.

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Current Treatment of Intraabdominal Infections
Albert J. Chong, M.D.; E. Patchen Dellinger, M.D

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Although peritonitis has been recognized as a common and complex disease entity since ancient times, the true understanding and pathophysiology, as well as treatment of peritonitis, continue to plague surgeons and physicians. The clinical course and outcome of peritonitis is dependent upon the struggle between the quantity and virulence of the pathogen and host's physiologic reserve, including the ensuing inflammatory response. The current multimodality treatment of intraabdominal infections is based upon the fundamental principles established by Polk in 1979: surgical source control, fluid resuscitation, adequate nutrition, support of failing organ systems, and antibiotics. Although dramatic advances have been made in the pharmacological treatment of intraabdominal infections, mortality for complicated cases remains high. Consequently, future directions in management of peritonitis may require agents that target specific endotoxin receptors, inflammatory signaling molecules, or immunomodulatory moieties.

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Haemostasis Using a Ready-to-Use Collagen Sponge Coated with Activated Thrombin and Fibrinogen
Omer Aziz, B.Sc., M.R.C.S.; Thanos Athanasiou, Ph.D., F.E.C.T.S.; Ara Darzi F.R.C.S., F.A.C.S., F.R.C.S.I.

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Adequate haemostasis is an important part of any surgical procedure, but particularly so in the case of visceral organ surgery where apparently insignificant ooze can ultimately result in significant haemorrhage and coagulopathy. To achieve haemorrhage control, the surgeon may use conventional techniques (eg, suture ligation, diathermy, and swab compression), but failing this has the option of using physical coagulation tools (eg, the argon beam coagulator) and haemostasis adjuncts (eg, fibrin glues and collagen sheets). Advances in manufacturing have led to development of several other haemostatic products including absorbable gelatin sponges, cyanoacrylates, and polymer-based adhesives. One such product consists of a fixed, ready-to-use equine collagen sponge coated with human thrombin and fibrinogen. It may be applied directly to the bleeding surface, without the need for preparation or reconstitution. This chapter reviews the published evidence and compares its use to other classes of haemostasis adjuncts across a range of surgical specialties, namely hepatic, splenic, thoracic, vascular, and minimally invasive surgery. It also aims to highlight the apparent advantages and limitations of the fibrinogen and thrombin-coated collagen sponge compared to other commercially available haemostasis adjuncts, and identify potential applications for the product.

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Impact of Hypothermia on the Immunologic Response After Trauma and Elective Surgery
Frank Hildebrand, M.D.; Martijn van Griensven, M.D., Ph.D.; Peter Giannoudis, M.D.; Thomas Schreiber, M.D.; Michael Frink, M.D.; Christian Probst, M.D.; Martin Grotz, M.D.; Christian Krettek, M.D.; Hans-Christoph Pape, M.D.

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An Hypothermia is defined as a decrease in core temperature below 35 degrees C. The well-described deleterious effects of accidental hypothermia on outcome in multiple-trauma patients contrast the beneficial effect of controlled hypothermia on organ function during ischemia in elective surgery. Experimental studies have shown that induced hypothermia during hemorrhagic shock might have beneficial effects on outcome. The beneficial effects of induced hypothermia appear to be partly mediated by the prolongation of the "golden hour" with prevention of hypoxic organ dysfunction. However, hypothermia also has been thought to have an impact on the immunologic response after trauma and elective surgery. Induction of hypothermia seems to decrease the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines believed to influence distant organ damage positively, and is mediated by the interaction of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) and capillary endothelial cells. Nevertheless, the incidence of posttraumatic infectious complications may be increased after induction of hypothermia due to an overexpression of anti-inflammatory cytokines. Together with this immunosuppressive profile, coagulopathy and bleeding might limit the use of induced hypothermia after multiple trauma and elective surgery. The purpose of this Chapter is to highlight current knowledge regarding the interaction of hypothermia and posttraumatic immune reactivity. A better understanding of these mechanisms would assist the introduction of preventive and therapeutic strategies into clinical practice.

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Advances in Breast Imaging
Doreen M. Agnese, M.D.

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Although mammography remains the most widely used tool for the early detection of breast cancers and evaluation of palpable abnormalities, a number of other imaging tools are being developed and used. Ultrasonography (US) is an excellent adjunct to conventional mammography. In addition to identifying solid and cystic abnormalities, US can often distinguish benign and malignant solid nodules. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also is useful in assessing the extent of disease within the breast, particularly in women with dense breasts. MRI may be a more sensitive screening tool in women at elevated breast cancer risk. Newer techniques based on the metabolic activity of breast tumors also have been developed. One such technique is scintimammography, which uses radiolabeled tracers to detect breast malignancies. Positron emission tomography (PET), which relies on the high metabolic rate of tumors, also has been described as a method to evaluate breast disease. Other techniques, such as optical tomography and thermography, rely on angiogenesis and generated heat to identify cancers. These and other tools may help to improve both the sensitivity and specificity of cancer detection. Ideally, this improved detection results in improved outcomes in those who have breast cancer and avoidance of unnecessary procedures in those who do not.

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Training Methods for Minimally Invasive Bariatric Surgery
Thomas McIntyre, M.D.; Daniel B. Jones, M.D., F.A.C.S.

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It is well-established that laparoscopic Roux-en-y gastric bypass is a technically challenging operation that requires a long learning curve. With the demand for bariatric surgery, particularly laparoscopic bariatric surgery on the rise, the focus has changed to ensure those performing this difficult procedure are trained appropriately. The ideal training would emphasize two things: (1) acquisition of advanced laparoscopic skills and intraoperative techniques, and (2) knowledge of preoperative and postoperative care of the bariatric patient. The current models for training for laparoscopic bariatric surgery fall into several categories: no training, formal courses, mini-fellowships, and formal minimally invasive surgery/bariatric fellowships. Each of these training paradigms is examined, as well as the available data that compare their effectiveness.

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The Role of Optical Access Trocars in Laparoscopic Surgery
Lotte Schoonderwoerd, M.D.; Dingeman J. Swank, M.D., Ph.D.

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A literature review between 2000 and 2005 has been conducted for laparoscopic access techniques. The blind insertion of a Veress needle or first trocar to create the pneumoperitoneum has been shown to cause vascular and visceral injuries. To reduce the risk of peritoneal entry, many surgeons prefer an open-access technique, like a Hasson trocar. Other trocars that can be used for laparoscopic entry are direct trocars and radially expanding trocars. No specific technique has been shown to be superior in preventing vascular and visceral complications. Optical trocars combine the advantages of the different entry techniques. This chapter describes the different entry techniques, indications, and clinical experiences of the optical trocars. An optical trocar provides a safe and feasible primary insertion method for laparoscopy in patients prone to access injuries.

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Risk Factors and Prophylaxis for Deep Venous Thrombosis in Neurosurgery
Sarah F. Smith, B.Sc., M.P.H. (Hons); Michael T. Biggs, M.B. B.S., F.R.A.C.S.; Lali H.S. Sekhon, Ph.D., F.R.A.C.S.

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Acceptance is increasing for pharmacological prophylaxis against deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) for most types of surgery, but its use remains controversial in neurosurgical patients because of the threat of catastrophic hemorrhage. Consequently, mechanical measures such as sequential calf compression and graduated compression stockings are currently the preferred prophylaxis for neurosurgical patients. However, some patients remain at high risk despite these measures and may require prophylaxis with low molecular weight heparins or unfractionated heparin. In neurosurgical patients, known risk factors for DVT or PE include advanced age, malignancy, limb weakness, prolonged surgery, and cranial as opposed to spinal surgery. Using comprehensive neurosurgery databases, the authors identify more specific neurosurgical diagnoses and procedures as risk factors for DVT and PE, and show increases in the frequency of DVT and PE for the wider neurosurgery population and for glioma patients over time. DVT prophylaxis is compared in public and private hospital settings. This chapter contributes to the changing picture of DVT and PE in neurosurgical patients over the last two decades.

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Intraoperative Localization of Early-Stage Gastrointestinal Tumors Using a Marking Clip Detector System 
Takeshi Ohdaira, M.D.; Hideo Nagai, M.D.; Jichi Medical School, Tochigi, Japan; Hiroyuki Shibusawa, M.D.

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Intraoperative Tumor site recognition is extremely difficult during laparoscopic surgical treatment of early-stage gastrointestinal carcinoma. A novel marking method that uses both metallic clips and a marking clip detector system (MCDS, Olympus Optical Co., Tokyo, Japan) modified from a metal detector system, was designed by the authors. Metallic clips were applied to the tumor site during preoperative endoscopy, and the clip site was identified intraoperatively using the MCDS. In a basic ex vivo study, three metallic clips were detected easily (100% detection). In a clinical study, the marking site was detected in all gastric cancer patients who underwent laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy. The mean distance between detected site and clip along the longitudinal bowel axis was 6.4 +/- 2.9 mm. Mean detection time was 18.1 +/- 5.7 seconds. None of the patients in this study experienced complications from this marking technique. MCDS allows accurate identification of tumor sites. This method may be useful for tumor-site identification during laparoscopic gastrectomy.

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Expanding Use of Nonpenetrating Clips in Various Surgical Specialities
Clark J. Zeebregts, M.D., Ph.D.; Wolff M. Kirsch, M.D.; Michel M.P.J. Reijnen, M.D., Ph.D.; Yong H. Zhu, M.D.; Jan J.A.M. van den Dungen, M.D., Ph.D.

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The Anastoclip Vessel Closure System (VCS) (LeMaitre Vascular, Burlington, MA, USA), introduced primarily to facilitate microvascular anastomoses performed during neurosurgical extra-intracranial bypasses, has been used for several other applications as well. The relatively new anastomotic technique includes a clip applier, clip remover, and everting forceps. With the applier, tiny nonpenetrating titanium clips were installed on everted walls of tubular structures. The technical ease of application, reduced anastomotic time, superior hemodynamics, and an improved healing pattern at the anastomosis have been recognized as major advantages compared to conventional suturing. This chapter describes the various indications for use of the system and categorizes them by specific surgical specialties, which include neurosurgery, urology, and gynecology, as well as plastic and reconstructive, vascular, thoracic, transplantation, hepatopancreaticobiliary, and orthopedic and trauma surgery. The largest clinical experience with clips is in vascular access surgery for hemodialysis purposes, both in autologous constructs and with prosthetic grafts. Promising clinical results also have been achieved in neurosurgical cases (both for microvascular anastomoses and with closure of dura mater), microvascular free-tissue transfer, and renal and liver transplantations. Future clinical applications include the use of clips for nerve repair and closure of various types of tubular structures using a laparoscopic approach.

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